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The intense light rich in UV rays, glare on the water, but even the wind and the sand may endanger the health of the eyes of adults, children and elderly. Small daily attention and suitable eyeglass help to prevent damage.
The eyes are delicate structures that require adequate protection throughout the year especially when the radiation is more intense and the more time you spend outdoors, with greater exposure to light, UV rays, wind, sand, salt water or high chlorine content. is therefore possible occur in the short term, transient irritation and redness. In the long run, however, the action of UV radiation may promote the onset of more serious diseases such as conjunctivitis and actinic keratosis. In addition, few know that even cataracts and macular, real injury to the retina can be fostered by exposure to sunlight. The risk of such problems increases exponentially with the habit of exposing themselves to the sun, the rays of glare on the water on the sand of the sea, lake and pool of glaciers and snow.
Yet, recent surveys conducted in Europe and the U.S. shows that awareness of possible eye damage from the sun is still low: only 14 percent of the adult population adequately protects the eyes. "Particularly poor is the focus on risk groups such as children and elderly" says Professor Leonardo Mastropasqua, director of the Regional Centre of Excellence in Ophthalmology, National Director of SOI, Italian Society of Ophthalmology.
to any doctor age means a visit by a specialist ophthalmologist check your eyes are healthy and learn the most effective strategies to defend them in the hot season.

Dangerous rays

The sun's rays that affect vision and can be harmful to the eyes during the summer are of three types:

  • Ultraviolet can cause discomfort to the cornea and the crystalline and must be blocked by the lens.

  • blue rays are very aggressive to the retina and be shielded in part.

  • The infrared, which are not harmful to the eyes but they represent a risk to the eyelids because of the heat that develops. The lens adapter allows the passage of these rays, which are necessary for good vision.

Disorders caused by the sun

Conjunctivitis is an inflammation of the conjunctiva caused by the sun, the membrane that lines the eyelids and the inside white of the eye. Causes redness, tearing, burning. In these cases you should avoid astringent eye drops. Better to use eye ointment to be applied within the eye, such as those based on Vitamin A.
Another serious condition is keratitis, inflammation of the cornea, clear glass on the front of the eye. The symptoms are intense tearing, burning and difficult to bear the light. It's a pretty painful disorder, which remedies must be prescribed by a specialist.
Excessive exposure to sun can lead to years in the formation of pterygium: it is a little skins, totally benign, caused in part dall'ispessimento conjunctiva inside of the white of the eye. It is only ugly, so it must be removed by the ophthalmologist with a small operation.


In summer, irritation and watery eyes are on the agenda. Here is how to intervene on time.

Eyelids and eye contour

This delicate area, as well as sunglasses, must be protected with a layer of sunscreen hypoallergenic and fragrance-free. To soothe the redness packs with cold water.

Excessive Tearing

The cornea and conjunctiva can be irritated easily with the action of ultraviolet light: then his eyes turn red and watery. For relief can be bought in pharmacies without preservatives tear substitutes.

Foreign body

If a fly or a grain of sand in a penetrating eye, you should rinse with fresh water, carefully avoiding rubbing the eyes with his hands, not to scratch the cornea. In fact, the particle during the motion of opening and closing of the eyelids rub against the cornea and can create micro-lesions. Control by the ophthalmologist is useful to exclude, as a result, any problems.

Chlorine and sea water

To relieve the burning sensation due to salt and chlorine is useful to use protective goggles. The speech is particularly true for children.


The first, simple system to protect eyes is to avoid sun exposure during the hottest hours, when the rays are more intense.
A wide-brimmed hat protects the eyes from direct sunlight and prevents heat stroke.
Sunglasses are essential, a true instrument of defense is indispensable for UV and blue light for both the sand and wind.
Protect your eyes by the wind and the entry of foreign particles in the eye is sufficient to choose a frame big enough and with side protection, and to protect the eyes from harmful rays is necessary to consider the optical quality of the lens so it is good avoid shopping at the stalls selling poor quality lenses.
The same care should be paid towards the purchase of sun glasses for kids choosing colored frames, with the most beloved characters that stimulate the baby to wear glasses with lenses of excellent quality. It's important that parents get used to the children to wear goggles from a very young age.


The lenses of safety glasses must be able to reduce the amount of light and select the sunlight, passing and blocking the infrared rays

Lenses to melanin

Protect your eyes from ultraviolet radiation and blue light, also advocating the formation of wrinkles around the eyes.

Polarized lenses

They are able to let pass the light in a selective way. They act like the Venetian, in fact as well as reducing the overall amount of light passing through lenses such as the common sun, forcing the light to pass only on the horizontal axis. This greatly reduces glare and improves image quality.
For these characteristics are given in conditions of high light and glare like the snow or the sea.

Photochromic lenses

They change color depending on the intensity of external light.
Not go well for driving: in fact, the lens increases the intensity of color in contact with ultraviolet light, which however remain shielded from the window glass cars. The result is that the lenses do not darken and then do not avoid the glare.

CPF lenses

They have the effect of greatly reduce glare and improve contrast of images. They can not be used in low light conditions and even less at night.


In addition to the general rules suitable for the use and care of eyeglasses, must pay attention to the color of the type of lens. For an even more effective eye protection is also important to associate with the type of lens that allows you to select a color light waves
Blue, pink, fuchsia: these types of coloration have been launched in the market, largely in response to the canons of fashion, but are not useful against the sun.
Yellow are the most effective, contrary to what you might think. In fact, have the dual advantage of taking from the sun UV radiation, but not to obscure the landscape, thereby giving a much sharper.
Brown, green, gray: defend well from bright light. They can also be associated with prescription lenses for myopic, hyperopic and presbyopic. The grey has the advantage of not distorting the colors.
Dark Blue: lenses of this type are to be avoided, since shield the infrared radiation leaving pass ultraviolet


By purchasing a pair of glasses is good to also take into consideration their habits and their programs. For those who do sports, for example, the glasses must ensure good shielding, but also be lightweight and unbreakable.

  • For those who play tennis and volleyball are good rather large glasses with side shields. The lenses should be absorbing medium.

  • Those who love cycling has to choose sunglasses small and appropriate to the shape of the face. We recommend a slow absorption of the medium-high.

  • Who practices summer skiing must remember that glacier glare is harmful to eyes. Are needed eyeglasses to high absorption and wraparound frames and impact resistant.

  • The same goes for those who go sailing or windsurfing practice: to defend themselves from reflections from the sea should be used glasses with large frames and impact resistant. High absorption.

  • For driving you can choose the models and the frames that you prefer. The absorption medium and the lenses should be impact resistant.

  • Who use contact lenses ought to be directed on a rather large frame, made ​​of impact-resistant, medium and slow absorption.

For those who wear contact lenses

Contact lenses do not protect from UV rays. There are specific, so-called UV-blocking, but do not replace sunglasses, which are therefore always worn, even because they avoid the entry of foreign bodies.

  • On the beach, it would be preferable to renounce the contact lenses and use sunglasses and eyeglasses, or you should opt for daily disposable contact lenses, which are thrown away after a long day.

  • For swimming or diving, it is essential to wear protective glasses.

  • By airplane would be appropriate for trip in excess of two hours to avoid the use of contact lenses because the reduced oxygen in the cabin air can cause redness and burning.

Essential in summer, as in other seasons, a careful cleaning with liquid detergents and disinfectants specific, for use only within the period indicated on the package and never more than two months after opening the package.


The eyes of children must be protected from sun and wind with sunglasses quality.
Early childhood is for the child a period of intense biological activity and activation of all motor and perceptual systems that are the basis for brain development and the acquisition of higher functions, whose vision is one of the most complex.
Any impediment to the child's psychomotor development may be accompanied by visual disturbances, it is important that the vision of the child is properly developed and he is ready to build capability and learning more complex.
In preschool children it is important to control the development of binocular vision and visual acuity, which must reach the normal values for age:

  • a year about 2-3/10

  • three years from 6 to 8/10

  • five years from 8 to 10/10

Attention pre-school age should be aimed primarily at highlighting possible partially sighted (low vision), hyperopia and astigmatism high (low vision at all distances).
Visual problems, which can be even a single eye, must be identified and corrected early to allow normal development of vision, but it is often difficult to detect without specific visual tests.